Heart Problems

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Heart Problems


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Amiodarone
This is a heart medicine used to treat arrhythmias. This article profiles how it works and when it is recommended.

Heart Problems - Amiodarone...
Heart Problems - History...
Heart Problems - Dosing...
Heart Problems - Mechanism of Action...
Heart Problems - Indications for Use...
Heart Problems - Contraindications...
Heart Problems - Metabolism...
Heart Problems - Side Effects...


Angina
Angina is chest pain which can be the result of exercise. The condition is a risk factor for a heart attack, however, the condition can be successfully treated.

Heart Problems - Angina...


Aspirin
Aspirin is commercially synthesized using a two-step process. First, phenol (generally extracted from coal tar) is treated with a sodium base which generates sodium phenoxide, which is then reacted with carbon dioxide under high temperature and pressure to yield salicylate, which is acidified, yielding salicylic acid. This process is known as the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction. Salicylic acid is then acetylated using acetic anhydride, yielding aspirin and acetic acid as a byproduct. It is a common experiment performed in undergraduate organic chemistry practicals, and generally tends to produce low yields due to the relative difficulty of its extraction from an aqueous state. The trick to getting the reaction to work is to acidify with phosphoric acid and heat the reagents under reflux with a boiling water bath for between 40 to 60 minutes. The original synthesis of aspirin from salicylic acid involved acetylation with acetyl chloride. Unfortunately, the byproduct from this is hydrochloric acid, which is corrosive and environmentally hazardous. As described above, it was then later found that acetic anhydride was a better acylating agent, with the byproduct acetic acid formed, which does not have the unwanted properties of hydrochloric acid and can also be recycled. The salicylic acid/acetic anhydride method is commonly employed in undergraduate teaching labs. Formulations containing high concentrations of aspirin often smell like vinegar. This is because aspirin can undergo autocatalytic degradation to salicylic acid in moist conditions, yielding salicylic acid and acetic acid. The acid dissociation constant (pKa) for Acetylsalicylic acid is 3.5 at 25 °C. ASA, being a weak acid, dissociates as shown by the following reaction equation:

Heart Problems - Aspirin...
Heart Problems - Aspirin as Genericized Trademark...
Heart Problems - Discovery...
Heart Problems - Synthesis...
Heart Problems - Mechanism of Action...
Heart Problems - Indications...
Heart Problems - Toxicity of Low-dose Aspirin...
Heart Problems - Contraindications and Warnings...
Heart Problems - Common Side-effects...
Heart Problems - Interactions...
Heart Problems - Overdose...
Heart Problems - Research Into Cancer Prevention...
Heart Problems - Aspirin in Pets...


Atorvastatin
Atorvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering drug which can help prevent a stroke or heart attack. This article profiles the medication and how it should be used.

Heart Problems - Atorvastatin...
Heart Problems - Pharmacology...
Heart Problems - Clinical Use...
Heart Problems - Patent Challenge...


Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation is an irregular heart beat which can lead to blood clots and strokes. This article looks the causes of the condition and what treatment is available.

Heart Problems - Atrial Fibrillation...
Heart Problems - Classification...
Heart Problems - Signs and Symptoms...
Heart Problems - Diagnosis...
Heart Problems - Causes...
Heart Problems - Pathophysiology...
Heart Problems - Treatment...
Heart Problems - Prognosis...
Heart Problems - Epidemiology...
Heart Problems - History...


Beta Blocker
Beta-blockers are commonly used to treat high blood pressure and angina. This article profiles the medication, and how it should be used.

Heart Problems - Beta Blocker...
Heart Problems - Pharmacology...
Heart Problems - Clinical Use...
Heart Problems - Adverse Effects...
Heart Problems - Examples...
Heart Problems - Comparative Information...


Cholesterol
High cholesterol levels are linked to heart problems. This article looks at how to reduce fat in our diets and maintain a healthy heart.

Heart Problems - Cholesterol...
Heart Problems - Physiology...
Heart Problems - Clinical Significance...
Heart Problems - Food Sources...
Heart Problems - Cholesteric Liquid Crystals...


Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
Coronary artery bypass surgery is an effective treatment for angina, and narrowing of the arteries. It may be recommended following a heart attack. This article details the operation and follow-up care.

Heart Problems - Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery...
Heart Problems - History...
Heart Problems - Terminology...
Heart Problems - Indications for CABG...
Heart Problems - Prognosis...
Heart Problems - Complications...
Heart Problems - Procedure (Simplified)...
Heart Problems - Conduits Used for Bypass...
Heart Problems - Minimally Invasive CABG...


Digoxin
This drug is used to treat heart failure. This article profiles the medication and its side effects.

Heart Problems - Digoxin...
Heart Problems - Actions...
Heart Problems - Mechanism of Action...
Heart Problems - Clinical Use...
Heart Problems - Adverse Effects...
Heart Problems - Other Information...
Heart Problems - In the News...


Heart Failure
Heart failure is a serious illness which requires good management. This article outlines the recommended treatments.

Heart Problems - Heart Failure...
Heart Problems - Causes...
Heart Problems - Classification...
Heart Problems - Signs and Symptoms...
Heart Problems - Diagnostic Lab Values...
Heart Problems - Treatment...


Heart Murmur
This article outlines the different causes of heart murmurs and the principles of diagnosis and treatment.

Heart Problems - Heart Murmur...
Heart Problems - Systolic Murmurs...
Heart Problems - Diastolic Murmurs...
Heart Problems - Continuous Murmurs...
Heart Problems - Gradations of Murmurs...
Heart Problems - Interventions That Change Murmur Sounds...


Hypertension
High blood pressure is a factor in heart disease and stroke. This article provides a broad overview of the condition, the possible causes, lifestyle factors and medications used to treat it.

Heart Problems - Hypertension...
Heart Problems - Etiology of Essential Hypertension...
Heart Problems - Etiology of Secondary Hypertension...
Heart Problems - Pathophysiology...
Heart Problems - Signs and Symptoms...
Heart Problems - Diagnosis...
Heart Problems - Epidemiology...
Heart Problems - Treatment...
Heart Problems - Causes...


Mitral Valve Prolapse
A mitral valve prolapse can cause a heart murmur, and can be serious in some cases. This article outlines the levels of severity.

Heart Problems - Mitral Valve Prolapse...
Heart Problems - Overview...
Heart Problems - History...
Heart Problems - Subtypes...
Heart Problems - Signs and Symptoms...
Heart Problems - Complications...
Heart Problems - Prognosis...
Heart Problems - Diagnosis...
Heart Problems - Treatment...
Heart Problems - Prevalence...


Myocardial Infarction
Heart attacks are a leading cause of death. This article looks at how heart attacks are treated and what measures can be taken to prevent them.

Heart Problems - Myocardial Infarction...
Heart Problems - Epidemiology...
Heart Problems - Pathophysiology...
Heart Problems - Triggers...
Heart Problems - Classification...
Heart Problems - Symptoms...
Heart Problems - Diagnosis...
Heart Problems - First Aid...
Heart Problems - Treatment...
Heart Problems - Complications...
Heart Problems - Prognosis...
Heart Problems - Legal Implications...


Nitrate
These medicines are potent heart drugs that are mainly used to treat angina. This article profiles their use and side effects.

Heart Problems - Nitrate...
Heart Problems - Chemical Properties...
Heart Problems - Occurrence and History...
Heart Problems - Related Materials...
Heart Problems - Effects on Aquatic Life...


Palpitation
An outline explaining this common symptom and tests that may be needed to clarify the diagnosis.

Heart Problems - Palpitation...
Heart Problems - Types of Palpitation...
Heart Problems - Types...
Heart Problems - Symptoms...
Heart Problems - Diagnosis...
Heart Problems - Treatment...


Simvastatin
Simvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering drug which is used to help prevent a stroke or heart attack. This article profiles the medication and how it should be used.

Heart Problems - Simvastatin...
Heart Problems - History...
Heart Problems - Uses...
Heart Problems - Rationing...
Heart Problems - Pharmacology...
Heart Problems - Marketing...
Heart Problems - Sales...


Stroke
A stroke can be a devastating event for patients and their families. This article discusses the treatment and prognosis for stroke patients.

Heart Problems - Stroke...
Heart Problems - Types...
Heart Problems - Signs and Symptoms...
Heart Problems - Diagnosis...
Heart Problems - Investigation of Underlying Etiology...
Heart Problems - Treatment...
Heart Problems - Prognosis...
Heart Problems - Risk Factors and Prevention...
Heart Problems - Pathophysiology...
Heart Problems - Epidemiology...
Heart Problems - History...


Triglyceride
Recent research shows triglyceride levels are useful for indicating risk of coronary heart disease and linked with diabetes development.This article discusses how they affect risk and examines testing and treatment.

Heart Problems - Triglyceride...
Heart Problems - Chemical Structure...
Heart Problems - Metabolism...
Heart Problems - Role in Disease...
Heart Problems - Industrial Uses...
Heart Problems - Staining...


Warfarin
Warfarin is a medication that helps prevent blood clotting and is used to treat several conditions. This article provides information about the drug and how it should be used.

Heart Problems - Warfarin...
Heart Problems - Mechanism of Action...
Heart Problems - Uses...
Heart Problems - Side-effects...
Heart Problems - Pharmacology...
Heart Problems - History...
Heart Problems - Other Coumarins...




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