Aspirin as Genericized Trademark

Browse by letter: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Site: All Medical Info.com
Aspirin as Genericized Trademark


 Page: Aspirin as Genericized Trademark

  Main article

Home > Circulation Problems > Aspirin as Genericized Trademark


The brand name Aspirin was coined by the Bayer company of Germany. In some countries the name is used as a generic term for the drug rather than the manufacturer's trademark. In countries in which Aspirin remains a trademark, the initialism ASA (for acetylsalicylic acid) is used as a generic term.

The name "aspirin" is composed of a- (from the acetyl group) -spir- (from the plant genus Spiraea) and -in (a common ending for drugs at the time). It has also been stated that the name originated by another means. "As" referring to AcetylSalicylic and "pir" in reference to one of the scientists who was able to isolate it in crystalline form, Raffaele Piria. Finally, "in" because it was a common ending for drugs at the time.

n March 6, 1899, Bayer registered it as a trademark. However, the German company lost the right to use the trademark in many countries because the Allies seized and resold its foreign assets after World War I. The right to use "Aspirin" in the United States (along with all other Bayer trademarks) was purchased from the U.S. government by Sterling Drug in 1918. Even before the patent for the drug expired in 1917, Bayer had been unable to stop competitors from copying the formula and using the name elsewhere, so, with a flooded market, the public was unable to recognize "Aspirin" as coming from only one manufacturer. Sterling was subsequently unable to prevent "Aspirin" from being ruled a genericized trademark in a U.S. federal court in 1921. Sterling was ultimately acquired by Bayer in 1994, but this did not restore the U.S. trademark. Other countries (such as Canada and many countries in Europe) still consider "Aspirin" a protected trademark.

Aspirin
In 1971, the British pharmacologist, John Robert Vane, who was then employed by the Royal College of Surgeons in London, showed that aspirin had suppressed the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. For this piece of research he was awarded both a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1982 and a knighthood. Aspirin's ability to suppress the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes is due to its non-competitive and irreversible inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. Cyclooxygenase is required for prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis. Aspirin acts as an acetylating agent where an acetyl group is covalently attached to a serine residue in the active site of the COX enzyme. This makes aspirin different from other NSAIDs (such as diclofenac and ibuprofen), which are reversible inhibitors. Prostaglandins are local hormones (paracrine) produced in the body and have diverse effects in the body, including but not limited to transmission of pain information to the brain, modulation of the hypothalamic thermostat, and inflammation. Thromboxanes are responsible for the aggregation of platelets that form blood clots. Heart attacks are primarily caused by blood clots, and their reduction with the introduction of small amounts of aspirin has been seen to be an effective medical intervention. The side-effect of this is that the ability of the blood in general to clot is reduced, and excessive bleeding may result from the use of aspirin. There are at least two different types of cyclooxygenase: COX-1 and COX-2. Aspirin irreversibly inhibits COX-1 and modifies the enzymatic activity of COX-2. Normally COX-2 produces prostanoids, most of which are pro-inflammatory. Aspirin-modified COX-2 produces lipoxins, most of which are anti-inflammatory. Newer NSAID drugs called COX-2 selective inhibitors have been developed that inhibit only COX-2, with the hope for reduction of gastrointestinal side-effects. However, several of the new COX-2 selective inhibitors have been recently withdrawn, after evidence emerged that COX-2 inhibitors increase the risk of heart attack. It is proposed that endothelial cells lining the microvasculature in the body express COX-2, and, by selectively inhibiting COX-2, prostaglandins (specifically PGI2; prostacyclin) are downregulated with respect to thromboxane levels, as COX-1 in platelets is unaffected. Thus, the protective anti-coagulative effect of PGI2 is decreased, increasing the risk of thrombus and associated heart attacks and other circulatory problems. Since platelets have no DNA, they are unable to synthesize new COX once aspirin has irreversibly inhibited the enzyme, an important difference with reversible inhibitors. Furthermore, aspirin has 2 additional modes of actions, contributing to its strong analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties: * It uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in cartilaginous (and hepatic) mitochondria, by diffusing from the inner membrane space as a proton carrier back into the mitochondrial matrix, where it ionizes once again to release protons. In short, aspirin buffers and transports the protons. (Note: This effect in high doses of aspirin actually causes fever due to the heat released from the electron transport chain, instead of its normal antipyretic action.) * It induces the formation of NO-radicals in the body that enable the white blood cells (leukocytes) to fight infections more effectively. This has been found recently by Dr. Derek W. Gilroy, winning Bayer's International Aspirin Award 2005. More recent data suggest that salicylic acid and its derivatives will modulate NF?B signaling. NF?B is a transcription factor complex that plays a central role in many biological processes, including inflammation.

Circulation Problems - Aspirin...
Circulation Problems - Aspirin as Genericized Trademark...
Circulation Problems - Discovery...
Circulation Problems - Synthesis of Aspirin...
Circulation Problems - Mechanism of Action...
Circulation Problems - Indications...
Circulation Problems - Toxicity of Low-dose Aspirin...
Circulation Problems - Contraindications and Warnings...
Circulation Problems - Common side-effects...
Circulation Problems - Interactions...
Circulation Problems - Overdose...
Circulation Problems - Research Into Cancer Prevention...
Circulation Problems - Aspirin in Pets...



Home > Circulation Problems > Aspirin as Genericized Trademark


 Important notice:
The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
© AllMedicalInfo.com Links | Privacy Policy | Home