Circulation Problems

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Circulation Problems


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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
An aneurysm is a serious condition which can lead to rupture of the main artery leading from the heart. This article looks at the risk factors, and the surgical options to cure the condition.

Circulation Problems - Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm...
Circulation Problems - History...
Circulation Problems - Epidemiology...
Circulation Problems - Etiology...
Circulation Problems - Pathophysiology...
Circulation Problems - Manifestations and Diagnosis...
Circulation Problems - Rupture...
Circulation Problems - Treatment...


Aspirin
In 1971, the British pharmacologist, John Robert Vane, who was then employed by the Royal College of Surgeons in London, showed that aspirin had suppressed the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. For this piece of research he was awarded both a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1982 and a knighthood. Aspirin's ability to suppress the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes is due to its non-competitive and irreversible inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. Cyclooxygenase is required for prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis. Aspirin acts as an acetylating agent where an acetyl group is covalently attached to a serine residue in the active site of the COX enzyme. This makes aspirin different from other NSAIDs (such as diclofenac and ibuprofen), which are reversible inhibitors. Prostaglandins are local hormones (paracrine) produced in the body and have diverse effects in the body, including but not limited to transmission of pain information to the brain, modulation of the hypothalamic thermostat, and inflammation. Thromboxanes are responsible for the aggregation of platelets that form blood clots. Heart attacks are primarily caused by blood clots, and their reduction with the introduction of small amounts of aspirin has been seen to be an effective medical intervention. The side-effect of this is that the ability of the blood in general to clot is reduced, and excessive bleeding may result from the use of aspirin. There are at least two different types of cyclooxygenase: COX-1 and COX-2. Aspirin irreversibly inhibits COX-1 and modifies the enzymatic activity of COX-2. Normally COX-2 produces prostanoids, most of which are pro-inflammatory. Aspirin-modified COX-2 produces lipoxins, most of which are anti-inflammatory. Newer NSAID drugs called COX-2 selective inhibitors have been developed that inhibit only COX-2, with the hope for reduction of gastrointestinal side-effects. However, several of the new COX-2 selective inhibitors have been recently withdrawn, after evidence emerged that COX-2 inhibitors increase the risk of heart attack. It is proposed that endothelial cells lining the microvasculature in the body express COX-2, and, by selectively inhibiting COX-2, prostaglandins (specifically PGI2; prostacyclin) are downregulated with respect to thromboxane levels, as COX-1 in platelets is unaffected. Thus, the protective anti-coagulative effect of PGI2 is decreased, increasing the risk of thrombus and associated heart attacks and other circulatory problems. Since platelets have no DNA, they are unable to synthesize new COX once aspirin has irreversibly inhibited the enzyme, an important difference with reversible inhibitors. Furthermore, aspirin has 2 additional modes of actions, contributing to its strong analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties: * It uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in cartilaginous (and hepatic) mitochondria, by diffusing from the inner membrane space as a proton carrier back into the mitochondrial matrix, where it ionizes once again to release protons. In short, aspirin buffers and transports the protons. (Note: This effect in high doses of aspirin actually causes fever due to the heat released from the electron transport chain, instead of its normal antipyretic action.) * It induces the formation of NO-radicals in the body that enable the white blood cells (leukocytes) to fight infections more effectively. This has been found recently by Dr. Derek W. Gilroy, winning Bayer's International Aspirin Award 2005. More recent data suggest that salicylic acid and its derivatives will modulate NF?B signaling. NF?B is a transcription factor complex that plays a central role in many biological processes, including inflammation.

Circulation Problems - Aspirin...
Circulation Problems - Aspirin as Genericized Trademark...
Circulation Problems - Discovery...
Circulation Problems - Synthesis of Aspirin...
Circulation Problems - Mechanism of Action...
Circulation Problems - Indications...
Circulation Problems - Toxicity of Low-dose Aspirin...
Circulation Problems - Contraindications and Warnings...
Circulation Problems - Common side-effects...
Circulation Problems - Interactions...
Circulation Problems - Overdose...
Circulation Problems - Research Into Cancer Prevention...
Circulation Problems - Aspirin in Pets...


Atorvastatin
Atorvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering drug which can help prevent a stroke or heart attack. This article profiles the medication and how it should be used.

Circulation Problems - Atorvastatin...
Circulation Problems - Pharmacology...
Circulation Problems - Clinical Use...
Circulation Problems - Patent Challenge...


Carotid Endarterectomy
This is an operation to remove blocked arteries in the neck which could lead to a stroke. This article from an American Vascular Surgeon outlines the best candidates for surgery and how the procedure is carried out.

Circulation Problems - Carotid Endarterectomy...
Circulation Problems - Procedure...
Circulation Problems - Indications...
Circulation Problems - Contra-indications...
Circulation Problems - Complications...


Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
Coronary artery bypass surgery is an effective treatment for angina, and narrowing of the arteries. It may be recommended following a heart attack. This article details the operation and follow-up care.

Circulation Problems - Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery...
Circulation Problems - History...
Circulation Problems - Terminology...
Circulation Problems - Indications for CABG...
Circulation Problems - Prognosis...
Circulation Problems - Complications...
Circulation Problems - Procedure (Simplified)...
Circulation Problems - Conduits Used for Bypass...
Circulation Problems - Minimally Invasive CABG...


Cramp
Muscle cramps are a common and painful condition;this article outlines some possible underlying causes and suggestions to help.

Circulation Problems - Cramp...
Circulation Problems - Causes and Treatment...
Circulation Problems - Menstruation...
Circulation Problems - Nocturnal Leg Cramps...
Circulation Problems - Smooth Muscle...
Circulation Problems - Skeletal Muscle...


Heart Failure
Heart failure is a serious illness which requires good management. This article outlines the recommended treatments.

Circulation Problems - Heart Failure...
Circulation Problems - Causes...
Circulation Problems - Classification...
Circulation Problems - Signs and Symptoms...
Circulation Problems - Diagnostic Lab Values...
Circulation Problems - Treatment...


Migraine
A migraine can temporarily disable a person. This article gives a fresh look at an age-old problem.

Circulation Problems - Migraine...
Circulation Problems - Signs and Symptoms...
Circulation Problems - Pathophysiology...
Circulation Problems - Types...
Circulation Problems - Epidemiology...
Circulation Problems - Triggers...
Circulation Problems - Treatment...
Circulation Problems - History...
Circulation Problems - Economic Impact...
Circulation Problems - Migraine and Cardiovascular Risks...


Myocardial Infarction
Heart attacks are a leading cause of death. This article looks at how heart attacks are treated and what measures can be taken to prevent them.

Circulation Problems - Myocardial Infarction...
Circulation Problems - Epidemiology...
Circulation Problems - Pathophysiology...
Circulation Problems - Triggers...
Circulation Problems - Classification...
Circulation Problems - Symptoms...
Circulation Problems - Diagnosis...
Circulation Problems - First Aid...
Circulation Problems - Treatment...
Circulation Problems - Complications...
Circulation Problems - Prognosis...
Circulation Problems - Legal Implications...


Raynaud's Phenomenon
This is a condition affecting the small blood vessels,usually in the hands and feet.This article outlines causes,associations and possible treatments.

Circulation Problems - Raynaud's Phenomenon...
Circulation Problems - Incidence...
Circulation Problems - Epidemiology...
Circulation Problems - Symptoms...
Circulation Problems - Treatment...


Simvastatin
Simvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering drug which is used to help prevent a stroke or heart attack. This article profiles the medication and how it should be used.

Circulation Problems - Simvastatin...
Circulation Problems - History...
Circulation Problems - Uses...
Circulation Problems - Rationing...
Circulation Problems - Pharmacology...
Circulation Problems - Marketing...
Circulation Problems - Sales...


Stroke
A stroke can be a devastating event for patients and their families. This article discusses the treatment and prognosis for stroke patients.

Circulation Problems - Stroke...
Circulation Problems - Types...
Circulation Problems - Signs and Symptoms...
Circulation Problems - Diagnosis...
Circulation Problems - Investigation of Underlying Etiology...
Circulation Problems - Treatment...
Circulation Problems - Prognosis...
Circulation Problems - Risk Factors and Prevention...
Circulation Problems - Pathophysiology...
Circulation Problems - Epidemiology...
Circulation Problems - History...


Triglyceride
Recent research shows triglyceride levels are useful for indicating risk of coronary heart disease and linked with diabetes development.This article discusses how they affect risk and examines testing and treatment.

Circulation Problems - Triglyceride...
Circulation Problems - Chemical Structure...
Circulation Problems - Metabolism...
Circulation Problems - Role in Disease...
Circulation Problems - Industrial Uses...
Circulation Problems - Staining...




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