Secondary infections

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The significance of secondary infection in IDD remains controversial. Atherton contends that, “Candida albicans can only be isolated from a minority of IDD cases; in many cases this is a reflection of antibiotic therapy. It has also been established that bacterial infection does not play a substantial part in the development of IDD.”(Atherton, 2004, p. 646).

However, there is little argument that once the stratum corneum has been damaged by a combination of physical and chemical factors, the skin is necessarily more vulnerable to secondary infections by bacteria and fungi. In analyzing swab samples at the perianal, inguinal and oral areas of 76 infants, Ferrazzini et al. (2003) found that colonization with Candida albicans was significantly more likely in children with symptomatic diaper rash than without. Staphylococcus aureus was also present more frequently in symptomatic than in healthy infants, but the difference was not statistically significant. A wide variety of other infections has been reported on occasion, including Proteus mirabilis, enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but it appears that Candida is the most common opportunistic invader in diaper areas (Ferrazzini et al., 2003; Ward et al., 2000).

Although apparently healthy infants sometimes culture positive for Candida and other organisms without exhibiting any symptoms, there does seem to be a positive correlation between the severity of the diaper rash noted and the likelihood of secondary involvement (Ferrazzini et al., 2003; Gupta & Skinner, 2004; Wolf et al., 2001).

Diaper Rash
Nappy rash is a common and irritating problem in babies. This article looks at how to avoid nappy rash and what can to be done to help.

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